The Connected World
To realize the full potential of a connected world of IoT, machine learning, mobility, and the futuristic vision of autonomous everything, it’s important to better understand the data generated that powers this vision. Data rights require sovereignty enforced by infrastructure itself. Downstream data analysis relies on upstream decision making from business processes, to operational accountability, to AI making software/systems smarter.
From resource production companies trying to understand pipe leakage, to an autonomous driving vehicle that needs an audit trail to act as an insurance policy, or a traditional company looking for insight into operations, data plays a decisive role in a myriad of industries that affect our day-to-day lives.
THE MARKET OPPORTUNITY
The Cost of Bad Data
What many fail to see is that bad data behind a secure firewall is still bad data. Incomplete or missing data affects industries into the trillions of dollars annually. Even worse, bad data can cost human life when faulty information is used in engineering, automotive, aerospace and countless other industries worldwide. Constellation Network has developed a distributed ledger technology to embrace the vision of a connected world, powered by big data, by creating the infrastructure to securely validate and protect one of the world’s most valuable resources.
Internet of Things (IoT)
The Internet of Things Requires a Faster, More Secure Alternative. Today’s business networks are vulnerable and incapable of dealing with the approaching growth in connected devices (IOT). Constellation is working on a protocol infrastructure that will have the ability for devices to securely and efficiently transmit data across disparate networks.
Constellation’s DAG architecture auto scales to provide the throughput needed for IOT devices to communicate. Each interaction or transaction is verified through a unique consensus model. Transactions flow through the network, allowing it to remain stable without every node having to individually verify before the next round of consensus is performed. This method incorporates a node’s historical participation into delegate selection, observation from local nodes, and rewards benevolent behavior. Learn more about DAG architecture here.
Current blockchain technologies like ETH and BTC require huge amounts of computational power in order to secure and validate their networks. This is not suitable to networks of small mobile devices whether they’re consumer electronic devices or industry hardware. Constellation’s mobile nodes solve network validation without costly mining services and taking up hardwares CPU usage.
Current networks are prone to centralization which in turn produces security risks for IOT manufacturers and consumers. Constellation’s DAG architecture and consensus models combats centralization by leveraging a reputation consensus model over PofW or PoS which are highly susceptible to manipulation. Find out more about Constellation’s consensus model here.
The Internet of things will consist of thousands if not millions of manufactures an differing data networks. In order for IoT devices to function and secure data, a network that can interoperate and communicate across chains will be necessary. Constellation’s framework is open-source, easy to develop on and allows for differing networks to sync.
The healthcare sector is poised for a Blockchain-fueled revamp, as the industry is facing problems that Blockchain technology seems perfectly suited to solve. Among these problems are data security and breaches, medical record keeping, combating counterfeit drugs, verifying the integrity of clinical trials, as well as an increased patient demand for data transparency and accessibility.
- Adapting Healthcare
- Data and IoMT Security
- Medical and Clinical Record Keeping
- Patient Driven Interoperability
7 in 10 healthcare trailblazers (respondents who began to commercialize blockchain in 2017) expect that blockchains greatest impact will be in the realm of “clinical trial records, regulatory compliance and medical/ health records.”
While it’s clear that the healthcare sector is hungry to adopt blockchain and DLT technology at scale to help tackle a host of issues, the tech is still nascent and isn’t quite ready for the task. At Constellation, we fully intend on being ready to meet the demands of the healthcare sector by 2020, when over half of the industry plans on implementing a commercial blockchain solution. Let’s look at several challenges currently facing the healthcare industry at large, and how Constellation’s framework can provide the solution.
During 2017, 5.6 million patient records were breached according to the Protenus Breach Barometer report, an annual survey of how data breaches affect healthcare. In addition, Frost & Sullivan are projecting a that between 20 and 30 billion Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) devices will be in use by 2020, creating a new cybersecurity battlefield that is currently lacking an industry standard. To illustrate this a step further, in 2017 the FDA recalled over 450,000 pacemakers due to fears that they could be hacked, leaving the patient’s heartbeat in the control of the hacker. With the rapid growth of IoMT and the breakneck pace of technological innovation, existing health IT architecture is lagging behind and failing to keep patients data secure and out of the hands of hackers.
With our novel introduction of Distributed Security, Constellation can serve as the underlying infrastructure to keep health data private and cryptographically secure. A hospital could store their patients health records on their own Constellation para-chain, and all of the connected IoMT devices could become nodes in the network (securing them from cyber threats). Constellation will be equipped to unlock the real benefits of patient monitoring in preventative medicine by enabling ways to transact certain data on-chain while maintaining data privacy off-chain.
We’ve already illustrated how vulnerable medical records are to hacking and data breaches, and Constellation’s distributed security framework could be perfectly suited to cryptographically secure patients records. By placing a vast amount of medical or clinical information on a Constellation para-chain, the patients would have complete autonomy over what data is being shared, and with whom, while medical practitioners would have unlimited access to an agreed upon set of data about patients. Our DAG-based protocol makes this data hack-proof, and mitigates the risk of data breaches for patients and medical outfits alike. In addition, our network becomes both faster and more secure as more nodes and participants join the network, further incentivizing medical institutions to shift away from vulnerable cloud-based IT systems.
William J. Gordon recently wrote a paper on Blockchain Technology for Healthcare: Facilitating the Transition to Patient-Driven Interoperability. In it, he outlines a shift away from a notion of institution driven interoperability within healthcare (which typically focused around data exchanged between hospitals or healthcare entities) and more towards a notion of patient-driven interoperability, “in which an individual patient’s electronic health data is made available to them through standard mechanisms like APIs.” Constellation’s API like infrastructure can serve as the connective framework between these two forms of interoperability, allowing patients to toggle what types of data gets shared with certain medical entities, while empowering individuals with more control over their data. In addition, individuals could be incentivized to opt-in to certain types of medical trials or research by receiving $DAG (or any other para-chain currency) in exchange for sharing their data.
Tokenization & Distribution of Energy
As it stands, the energy market in the US alone is worth 2 trillion dollars. The distributed ledger investment in the sector is currently at $100 million dollars. Constellation is leading the path on tokenized solution that will allow consumers and businesses to effectively earn and distribute their energy consumption, minimizing wastage and dismantling the current monopolies of the sector. Below are a number of approaches and use cases Constellation is looking into.
- Modernizing Grids
- Green Finance & Carbon Trading
- Variable Electricity Rates
- Tokenization of Energy
- Energy Tracking
We’ve entered an age of abundance with traditional renewable energy sources providing more power than ever before. This, coupled with the rise of consumer technologies like solar panels, calls for a radical rethink of how we manage and distribute energy on this planet. Constellation’s technology allows for the tokenization of energy consumption across disparate networks improving the current hierarchies of production and consumption.
While Blockchain may seem at first too disruptive for power utilities, it can actually help them keep up with rising power demand in smaller, lower-value blocks. Blockchain can also make existing energy industry processes more efficient by serving as the backbone for the smart grid systems that automatically diagnose and respond to network emergencies and problems.
Blockchain can be deployed to both schemes, which are crucial to support the implementation of developing member countries’ Nationally Determined Contributions under the 2015 Paris Agreement against climate change. The technology can help provide guarantees of origin, emission allowances, and renewable energy certificates, and also help organize, coordinate and secure resilient peer-to-peer power systems.
Presently, electricity rates are stipulated by centralized authorities. Blockchain technology has the potential to decentralize the market such that rates will no longer be fixed by these centralized bodies, but by the market itself. Electricity tariffs will begin to behave like tradable commodities that respond to demand and supply signals in a fully functioning distributed electricity market.
With this sort of model, consumers will be presented with an array of choices when it comes to selecting electricity service providers. Consumers will be able to scan through blockchain listings to find the best deals for themselves.
Cryptocurrencies are the native currencies of the blockchain environment. By incorporating blockchains into the energy ecosystem, cryptocurrencies can be used to make energy payments. By “tokenizing” the grid, cryptocurrencies can then be used to facilitate different types of energy market transactions.
There are quite a number of sub-applications to this model. One is the tokenization of electricity by energy producers. WePower, a European-based blockchain enterprise that focuses on green energy trading, is one of the companies that is pursuing this model. Energy producers will be able to sell electricity in the form of tokenized cryptocurrencies which can be bought and traded like other cryptocurrencies.
With the electricity market decentralized and electrical energy becoming an asset on a blockchain, consumers can begin to trade electricity within a peer-to-peer market. This has the potential to introduce a greater economic potential for both energy companies and consumers as far the energy market is concerned. By making electricity a tradable asset on a blockchain, consumers can benefit from the many advantages of the blockchain commerce such as low transaction costs and network transparency among others.
There are a number of blockchain-based enterprises that are already working on solutions tailored to the peer-to-peer electricity trading market. Electron, which is a UK startup and Power Ledger an Australian blockchain-based energy company are some of the firms that are working to implement the peer-to-peer energy trading market. Microgrids are popping all over in places like New York, Sidney, Perth as well as communities in Germany and South Africa.
These microgrids allow trading in electricity within a specified area. One of the main advantages of microgrids is that it can be used as an emergency backup in situations when there are issues with the main grid. Natural disasters like floods, earthquakes, and hurricanes can cause service disruptions by affecting centralized grid infrastructure. In such an event, microgrids can sustain the community until the main grid is back online.
To respond to commercial interest and government regulation, renewable energy certificates and guarantees markets have emerged in the United States, Europe, Australia and elsewhere. While these markets have noble intentions, their administration is highly manual and costly, rendering the markets opaque, high-cost and inaccessible for most smaller participants. In addition, these analog, largely manual markets are not able to support any higher-level functionality such as consumption-linked purchasing, carbon-impact selective purchasing, or renewable generator aggregation.
“Why can’t buying renewable energy credits be like buying an airline ticket–allowing buyers to search for exactly what they want and allowing sellers to join forces to get a buyer to their desired destination?” EWF researchers ask. “Blockchains can create such a system for renewable energy.”